Author: Hernalsteens, C.
Paper Title Page
Optimization of Hadron Therapy Beamlines Using a Novel Fast Tracking Code for Beam Transport and Beam-Matter Interactions  
  • C. Hernalsteens, K. André
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • V. Collignon, Q. Flandroy, B. Herregods
    IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
  • R. Jungers, Z. Wang
    UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
  • R. Tesse
    ULB - FSA - SMN, Bruxelles, Belgium
  The optimization of proton therapy beamlines challenges the traditional approach used in beam optics due to the very strict constraints on beam quality, especially for Pencil Beam Scanning, despite the large losses induced by the emittance increase coming from the energy degrader. In order to explore the performances of proton therapy beamlines, we proceed using a new fast beam tracking Python library coupled with a genetic algorithm. Global optimization algorithms such as the genetic algorithm or basin hopping schemes require numerous evaluations of the model and their practical implementations are limited by the computation time at each iteration. To overcome this limitation, while at the same time allowing an open-box user experience, a Python library has been developed, including transport models for the typical hadron therapy beamlines elements, as well as models for the computation of multiple Coulomb scattering. The Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) allows to explore the parameter space in a global sense. This multi-objective algorithm enables the simultaneous optimization of complex constraints specific to proton therapy beamlines. Results for the IBA Proteus One system are presented and discussed in detail.  
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Seamless Beam and Radiation Transport Simulations of IBA Proteus Systems Using BDSIM  
  • R. Tesse, A. Dubus, E. Gnacadja, C. Hernalsteens, N. Pauly
    ULB - FSA - SMN, Bruxelles, Belgium
  • S.T. Boogert, L.J. Nevay, W. Shields
    JAI, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • C. Hernalsteens
    IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
  The precise modeling of proton therapy systems is challenging and requires simulation tools that have capabilities in both beam transport and in the detailed description of particle-matter interactions. Current separate simulations such as those of optical codes or Monte-Carlo transport through discrete elements show their limitations due to the very strict requirements on beam quality at the isocenter. This is particularly relevant with the development of compact systems where the coupling between the components is dominant. For such systems the design of the concrete shielding, which has a large impact on the total cost of the system, is of primary importance. Beam Delivery Simulation (BDSIM) allows the seamless simulation of the transport of particles in a beamline and its surrounding environment. A complete 3D model is built using Geant4, CLHEP and ROOT to provide an extensive insight into beam loss, its interaction and subsequent radiation. This capability is applied to the IBA eye treatment proton therapy machine and to the IBA Proteus One compact system. We discuss the validation of both models against experimental data. In particular, we use it to predict lateral profiles and energy spectra using a detailed geometry of the eye-treatment beam forming nozzle. For the Proteus One system, we present results on the activation of the concrete shielding of the system estimated for a period of 20 years of operation obtained for the first time using end-to-end simulations of the transport of protons in the beamline and their interactions with the environment.  
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